The basic concept behind making of Novamining website is to assimilate all relevant information of Indian mining industry at a single platform to help the practicing. Mariner 1 Wikipedia. Mariner 1 was the first spacecraft of the American Mariner program, designed for a planetary flyby of Venus. It cost 1. 8. 5 million in 1. It was launched aboard an Atlas Agena rocket on July 2. Shortly after takeoff the rocket responded improperly to commands from the guidance systems on the ground, setting the stage for an apparent software related guidance system failure. With the craft effectively uncontrolled, a range safety officer ordered its destructive abort 2. According to NASAs current account for the public The booster had performed satisfactorily until an unscheduled yaw lift northeast maneuver was detected by the range safety officer. Faulty application of the guidance commands made steering impossible and were directing the spacecraft towards a crash, possibly in the North Atlantic shipping lanes or in an inhabited area. The destruct command was sent 6 seconds before separation, after which the launch vehicle could not have been destroyed. General purpose programming language designed to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and typesafe way. New Hindi Instrumental Songs Mp3 2014. Solgars combination of calcium and magnesium with zinc gives you allround supplement support for skin, bones, hair, nails and teeth. Build a powerful, secure ecommerce storefront with our Online Store Software. Sell, promote, and grow with the 1ShoppingCart. Online Store Builder. Ga Zinc SheetSolid Rolled 44. Wide Product DescriptionZinc sheet is Sold by the linear foot 44. Great for. TheINQUIRER publishes daily news, reviews on the latest gadgets and devices, and INQdepth articles for tech buffs and hobbyists. Water Treatment Rules of Thumb Myths or Useful Tools Robert J. Ferguson FRENCH CREEK SOFTWARE, INC. Hares Hill Road, P. O. Box 684 Kimberton, PA 194420684. The radio transponder continued to transmit signals for 6. The role of software error in the launch failure remains somewhat mysterious in nature, shrouded in the ambiguities and conflicts among and in some accounts, even within the various accounts, official and otherwise. The probes mission was accomplished by Mariner 2 which launched 5 weeks later. Spacecraft and subsystemseditThe Mariner 1 spacecraft was identical to Mariner 2, launched 2. August 1. 96. 2. Mariner 1 consisted of a hexagonal base, 1. On top of the base, was a tall pyramid shaped mast on which the science experiments were mounted which brought the total height of the spacecraft to 3. Attached to either side of the base were rectangular solar panel wings with a total span of 5. Attached by an arm to one side of the base and extending below the spacecraft was a large directional dish antenna. The Mariner 1 power system consisted of the two solar cell wings, one 1. Those panels powered the craft directly or recharged a 1,0. Sun, and when loads were heavy. A power switching and booster regulator device controlled the power flow. Communications consisted of a 3 watt transmitter capable of continuous telemetry operation, the large high gain directional dish antenna, a cylindrical omnidirectional antenna at the top of the instrument mast, and two command antennas, one on the end of either solar panel, which received instructions for midcourse maneuvers and other functions. Propulsion for midcourse maneuvers was supplied by a monopropellant anhydrous hydrazine 2. N retro rocket. The hydrazine was ignited using nitrogen tetroxide and aluminium oxidepellets, and thrust direction was controlled by four jet vanes situated below the thrust chamber. Attitude control with a 1 degree pointing error was maintained by a system of nitrogen gas jets. The Sun and Earth were used as references for attitude stabilization. Overall timing and control was performed by a digital Central Computer and Sequencer. Thermal control was achieved through the use of passive reflecting and absorbing surfaces, thermal shields, and movable louvers. The scientific experiments were mounted on the instrument mast and base. A magnetometer was attached to the top of the mast below the omnidirectional antenna. Particle detectors were mounted halfway up the mast, along with the cosmic ray detector. A cosmic dust detector and solar plasmaspectrometerdetector were attached to the top edges of the spacecraft base. A microwave radiometer and an infraredradiometer and the radiometer reference horns were rigidly mounted to a 4. Zinc 4.0 Software' title='Zinc 4.0 Software' />In addition, a small 9. United States flag was folded and stowed onboard Mariner 1 and Mariner 2, before it was mated to the Agena. Launch failureeditThe launch was aborted due to a combination of two failures, a malfunction of the GE Mod III B guidance system rate beacon, and a faulty guidance program. The rate beacon malfunction occurred at T9. First, the guidance antenna on the Atlas performed poorly, below specifications. When the signal received by the rocket became weak and noisy, the rocket lost its lock on the ground guidance signal that supplied steering commands. Atlas Agena vehicles utilized two different guidance system variants for Cape Canaveral and Vandenberg launches, both of them proved to be troublesome and caused several in flight malfunctions, leading to redesign of the guidance system by General Electric in 1. The guidance system had an onboard program that could be activated in the event that the ground signal was lost, but it contained a faulty equation. Atlas vehicles flew on autopilot only during booster phase and the guidance system would activate following BECO to steer the sustainer engine and perform adjustments to the flight trajectory. Due to the faulty guidance system programming, large unplanned yaw maneuvers occurred shortly after the start of sustainer phase. The destruct command was issued by the Range Safety Officer at T2. The Agena stage had no Range Safety destruct system of its own due to weight restrictions, only an Inadvertent Separation Destruct System ISDS which was wired to the Atlas adapter section and disabled at staging. Mcrosoft Mouse and Keyboard Center is software that provides drivers for most Microsoft mice and keyboards. It allows the user to set up and configure both mice and. If the Agena separated from the stack prior to Atlas SECO, the ISDS charges would activate and destroy it. Activation of the Range Safety system on the Atlas would also destruct the Agena. Had Range Safety action not been taken with Mariner 1s launch vehicle, the Agena and spent Atlas sustainer section could come down in a populated area, so it was necessary to make sure they were broken up. There are several accounts of what happened. Overbar transcription erroreditThe most detailed and consistent account was that the error was in hand transcription of a mathematical symbol in the program specification for the guidance system, in particular a missing overbar. The error had occurred when a symbol was being transcribed by hand in the specification for the guidance program. The writer missed the superscript bar or overline in. Rndisplaystyle bar dot Rnby which was meant the nth smoothed value of the time derivative of a radius R. Since the smoothing function indicated by the bar was left out of the specification for the program, the implementation treated normal minor variations of velocity as if they were serious, causing spurious corrections that sent the rocket off course. It was then destroyed by the Range Safety Officer. Alternate guidance system failure explanationseditThe cryptic nature of the problems that led to the decision to abort Mariner 1, as well as the confusion in various reports on the incident, led to other explanations in the popular press. The most expensive hyphen in historyeditMany accounts note a missing hyphen rather than the overbar, in either the equations, the computer instructions or the data. For example, Arthur C. Clarke wrote several years later that Mariner 1 was wrecked by the most expensive hyphen in history. Several factors contributed to the missing hyphen narrative and its longevity, even in official accounts from technical cognoscenti at JPL and NASA. Among the factors cited or obvious enough The overbars resemblance to a hyphen versus. The difficulty of explaining the real error to the American public and its elected representatives. External political pressures and internal schedule pressures, as the mission was.